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class="tac fs20">装备制造业:掌握核心技术以高端装备制造为契机</h1> <h3 class="tac"><span>来源?a href='http://www.butchmeth.com/news/19.html'>http://www.butchmeth.com/news/19.html</a></span><span>发布时间?016-10-24</span></h3> <div id="6l6te1iz" class="con mt10 fs14"> <p><p>         高端装备制造业一直作为各项工业技术、信息技术及各类新兴技术的集成载体存在。它的发展紧密地和各个行业的产业升级、技术进步有着联系。因此,寻求更加有效的发展路径,不断发展壮大我国高端装备制造业,使之真正成为国民经济的主要组成部分,对于我们这样一个制造业大国意义重大?</p> <p> 《高端装备制造业“十二五”发展规划》不久前发布,提出到2015年,我国高端装备制造业的产业规模要上一个新台阶,销售收入超?万亿元,在装备制造业中的占比提高?5%,工业增加值率达到28%?</p> <p> “市场换技术”无法实现的目标 </p> <p> 目前,我国高端装备制造业取得明显进步,已初具规模,有效带动了区域经济发展。以东北老工业基地哈尔滨市为例,通过东北老工业基地振兴规划,依托国家重点工程,哈尔滨工业大学、中国船舶重工集团公司第七〇三研究所、哈尔滨哈飞汽车工业集团有限公司、哈尔滨电站设备集团公司等一批高端装备制造研发单位经过多年创新攻关,已在航空航天、飞行器导航控制、百万千瓦核电火电水电、能源动力装备研发等方面取得了重大科研成果,不仅为“神舟”飞天、“嫦娥”探月、“天宫”对接、“蛟龙”入海提供技术支撑,还成为当地经济的主导、产业的支柱、科技创新的主体?</p> <p> 技术进步和产业发展的辐射作用日渐显现,引领带动了地方经济的发展,“‘十一五’期间,哈尔滨市科技进步对经济增长的贡献率比‘十五’末增长?2%,达?3%,高新技术产值年均增?32%。”哈尔滨市科技局局长于沐琳说?</p> <p> 然而,与发达国家相比,我国高端装备制造产业仍存在较大差距。统计数据显示,在我国高端装备制造领域,80%的集成电路芯片制造装备?0%的大型石化装备?0%的汽车制造关键设备及先进集约化农业装备等仍依靠进口,拥有自主品牌的产品不?0%。之所以造成这样的局面,一是由于我国高端装备制造业的技术大都来自国外,引进、消化、吸收、再创新需要一个相当长的时间。加之发达国家在这一领域产业技术转移有限,高技术、核心技术难以转让,多以跨国公司形式进入我国,增加了我国培育高端装备制造产业的难度?</p> <p> 这从燃气轮机的发展道路中就可以明显看出。上个世纪前,由于自身技术基础落后,我国的燃气轮机设备几乎完全依靠国外进口,长期处于引进阶段,很难消化吸收?003年以后,为了达到“市场换技术”的目的,短时间内缩短燃气轮机设计制造技术的差距,国家发改委、国家能源局先后主持三次打捆招标及后续招标,还组成了三对合作方——哈汽—GE、东汽—三菱、上汽—西门子,以帮助我国企业消化吸收再创新,其代价高?50亿元。经过几年的引进,上汽、东汽、哈汽都建立了先进的车间,购买了制作燃气轮机的特殊设备,但得非所愿,“我们真正能做的还是以冷部件为主,核心的热部件仍然被国外垄断。一旦热部件坏了,更换费用十分昂贵,由于我国不掌握这一技术,仍需付出高昂的代价。”不少企业正是吃了这样的苦头才被逼上了创新之路。核心技术买不来,这在高端制造领域体现得尤为明显?</p> <p> “中国制造”由大变强的突破?</p> <p> 中国船舶重工集团公司第七〇三研究所,作为国家从事大型舰船主动力研究和能源动力装备研究的科研单位,目前正在组?0兆瓦燃压机组项目的研发攻关。燃气轮机是能源动力装备领域的最高端产品,被誉为制造业领域“皇冠上的明珠”,在航空、舰船等领域都有着不可替代的战略地位和作用。“此前,只有几大发达国家掌握了燃气轮机的核心技术,我们的目标就是打破国外的长期垄断,实?0兆瓦级天然气压缩燃气轮机的自主设计和制造,跻身这一领域的先进行列。”七〇三所副所长常山向记者介绍说。通过多年来的技术创新,七〇三所不断提高核心竞争力,努力满足国家日益提升的国防战略需求和关乎国计民生的能源装备需求?</p> <p> 这仅仅是我国高端装备制造业的一个缩影。装备制造业是工业的基石,要从根本上发展工业,壮大装备制造业,做强高端装备制造业是必由之路?010年,国务院出台了《关于加快培育和发展战略性新兴产业的决定》,今年5月,工业和信息化部印发了《高端装备制造业“十二五”发展规划》。培育和发展高端装备制造产业这一战略性新兴产业,已成为我国制造业转型升级的战略选择?</p> <p> 综观美国、德国等世界工业强国,无不遵循控制高技术、高附加值装备设计和制造的理念,以技术优化提升传统装备制造业,利用高端制造保持产业优势。培育高端装备制造产业,已经成为我国制造业转型升级,实现“由大到强”转变的突破口。中国机械工业联合会顾问陆燕荪表示,高端装备制造产业技术含量高,体现出多学科和多领域高精尖技术的继承;并且处于价值链高端,具有高附加值的特征;在产业链占据核心部位,其发展水平能够决定产业链的整体竞争力。因而,高端装备制造产业作为工业技术、信息技术及新兴技术的集成载体,直接关系到各个行业的产业升级和技术进步?</p> <p> 迎“黄金增长期”须补足的“短板?</p> <p> 经过10年来的大力发展,在高端装备制造的一些重要领域,我国也获得了长足进步。“我们的装备技术从前与国外差距很大,但在汽轮机制造的一些领域,我们现在已达到世界先进水平。”哈尔滨汽轮机厂有限责任公司副总经理张秋鸿自豪地说,“我们正在努力摘取装备制造领域皇冠上的明珠。”哈汽具有自主知识产权的产品,如空冷机组系列、超超临?60兆瓦机组?00兆瓦等级供热机组、联合循环机组等,其综合性能已跻身国际先进水平。目前,哈汽正在研制开发更大容量、更高参数)的超超临界火电机组、联合循环汽轮机、重型燃机等产品的道路上不断迈进?</p> <p> 但整体来说,我国的高端装备制造业仍是发展“短板”,与制造业大国的地位不相适应,为寻求更加有效的发展出路,陆燕荪表示,应着重解决高端装备制造业存在的以下几个普遍问题。一是要解决过度依赖要素投入,效率不高的问题;二是大企业集团不强,也缺乏专特精的小巨人企业为之配套;三是技术创新体系亟待改善;四是政府各部门需要真正落实振兴装备制造业的各项政策?</p> <p> 此外,“十二五”期间,我国还将充分借鉴国外先进经验,建立实施重大技术装备跨区域、跨行业、跨部门的协调机制,统筹制定装备制造业的相关政策,组织协调重大技术装备联合攻关等举措。在多项政策引导下,专家预测?020年,高端装备制造业将会迎来黄金增长期,成为国民经济的重要组成部分。中国能源经济研究院研究员陈柳钦表示,经过技术积累和沉淀,中国制造将会依托全球的技术标准,走上中国创造之路?</p> <p> 掌握高端装备制造业的关键技术、核心技术才能不受制于人。也才能保证高端装备制造的健康良好发展?</p> <p style="text-align:center;"> <img src="/uploads/image/20161222/20161222150937_4774.png" alt="" /> </p></p> </div> <div id="6l6te1iz" class="newArtiNext mt10"><div>上一?<a href="20.html">制造业争夺战再次打?中国制造何去何?/a></div> <div>下一?<a href="18.html">外贸全年?0% 制造业优势犹存</a></div> </div> <div id="6l6te1iz" class="tag">相关标签?a href='/key.aspx?k=%b6%dc%ca%af%bb%fa%d0%b5'>盾石机械</a>,<a href='/key.aspx?k=%bf%f3%d4%fc%c1%a2%c4%a5_%c1%a2%c4%a5_%bb%d8%d7%aa%d2%a4-%cb%ae%c4%e0%bb%fa%d0%b5%b3%a7%bc%d2'>矿渣立磨_立磨_回转?水泥机械厂家</a>,</div> <div id="6l6te1iz" class="crumb mt10"> <span class="fl font_w fs18">相关新闻</span> </div> <div id="6l6te1iz" class="insNews clearfix pt10 fs14 font_w"> <ul> <li><a href="/news/33.html" 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